Petroleum bitumen has distinctive types which we will discuss in the following. Generally speaking, bitumen divides into several groups in terms of the seven bitumen test results. First, we discuss the penetration grades according to the petroleum bitumen penetration test result.
The specialists obtain Pen-grade bitumen grades in the refinery directly from the distillation tower and define them due to their degree of penetration; for instance, 60/70 bitumen has a penetration rate between 60 and 70. Those grades that are soft, which means their degree of penetration is higher, have a different refining process. The specialists produce them by the distillation of crude oil. On the other hand, the direct distillation of crude oil will result in the production of bitumen grades including 60/70, 200/180, 150/130, 100/85 and so on. Blowing these aforementioned types, other petroleum bitumen grades such as 30/20, 40/30, 50/40 appear.
Now let’s move on to the classification of oxidized or blown bitumen (R Grade). In fact, soft bitumen oxidizes with heavy oils it converts to R-type or solid R-type bitumen for the application in road construction or insulation and roofing. Another petroleum bitumen type according to viscosity bitumen test.
Vg bitumen types are several, same as the mentioned types and each has a specific application. Another classification of petroleum bitumen based on efficiency grade is the Performance grades or PG types. They are also important in construction and industry.
A general classification of bitumen:
- Blown bitumen
- Mixed or dissolved bitumen
- Emulsion bitumen
- Petroleum bitumen
What are the significances of bitumen?
The most significant property of bitumen is that it remains stable for many years without deformation, the degree of stability also depends directly on the oil base.
Other characteristics are as follows:
- Dissolves in some solvents without losing properties
- Has a solid color
- Moisture does not penetrate it
- Resistant to acids, bases, and salts
- Electrical current insulation
- Adhesion capability
Let’s look closer into the refinery and distillation power
In the refinery, various products appear from crude oil. Some substances from the distillation of crude oil in the refinery distillation tower may not be usable in the first place. Moreover, they are semi-finished products, and each of them reduces according to how it is and its quality is increased to other units such as catalytic conversion. The process washes the viscosity with solvent and removes it to come up with the final products. In general, crude oil slightly heats after entering the refinery and then drives to the distillation tower, where it becomes important oil cuts under atmospheric pressure and vacuum. These incisions have different propositional points.